Read e-book online A Conflict of Visions: Ideological Origins of Political PDF
By Thomas Sowell
During this vintage paintings, Thomas Sowell analyzes the 2 competing visions that form our debates concerning the nature of cause, justice, equality, and tool: the “constrained” imaginative and prescient, which sees human nature as unchanging and egocentric, and the “unconstrained” imaginative and prescient, during which human nature is malleable and perfectible. He describes how those considerably antagonistic perspectives have manifested themselves within the political controversies of the prior centuries, together with such modern concerns as welfare reform, social justice, and crime. up to date to incorporate sweeping political adjustments considering that its first book in 1987, this revised variation of A clash of Visions bargains a resounding case that moral and coverage disputes circle round the disparity among either outlooks.
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Additional info for A Conflict of Visions: Ideological Origins of Political Struggles (2nd Edition)
The rejection of the concept of collective wisdom leaves individual comparisons as the standard of judgment. Since the experiences of a through w no longer count, the issue reduces to the articulated rationality of x versus that of y. Therefore, the unconstrained vision necessarily favors the “cultivated mind” y, while the constrained vision necessarily favors the views expressed through x, seen as representative of the unarticulated experience of many others (a through w). The two visions thus lead to opposite conclusions as to which opinion should prevail, and why.
47 Reason has at least two very different meanings. One is a cause-and-effect meaning: There is a reason why water expands when it freezes into ice, even though most of us who are not physicists do not know what that reason is—and at one time, no one knew the reason. The other meaning of reason is articulated specification of causation or logic: When it is demanded that individuals or society justify their actions before the bar of reason, this is what is meant. The more constrained one’s vision of human capabilities and potential, the greater the difference between these two meanings.
Chapter 4 Visions of Social Processes Differences in the vision of human nature are reflected in differences in the vision of social processes. It is not merely that social processes are seen as mitigating the shortcomings of human nature in one vision and as aggravating them in the other. The very ways that social processes function and malfunction are seen differently in the two visions, which differ not only in their view of morality but also in their view of causation. Social processes cover an enormous range, from language to warfare, from love to economic systems.
A Conflict of Visions: Ideological Origins of Political Struggles (2nd Edition) by Thomas Sowell