New PDF release: Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate
By Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner
Faculties of fish, flocks of birds, and swarms of bugs are examples of third-dimensional aggregation. masking either invertebrate and vertebrate species, the authors examine this pervasive organic phenomenon via various disciplines, from physics to arithmetic to biology. the 1st part is dedicated to some of the tools, regularly optical and acoustic, used to gather 3-dimensional information through the years. the second one part specializes in analytical equipment used to quantify development, team kinetics, and interindividual interactions in the crew. The part on behavioral ecology and evolution offers with the services of aggregative habit from the viewpoint of an inherently egocentric person member. the ultimate part makes use of types to explain how crew dynamics on the person point creates emergent trend on the point of the gang.
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Additional info for Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate
Because the position of the cameras (particularly the camera-object distance) and the principal distance are usually both unknown and are highly correlated in the solution, it is imperative that the control points are noncoplanar and that there must be as much depth as possible. An alternative approach is analytical plumb-line calibration (Brown 1971; Fryer & Brown 1986) in which a series of known straight lines are photographed. This method is based on the fact that, for a distortion-free lens, each straight line in object space should appear as a straight line on the image.
Here, the temporal bandwidth of the transducer (BW) can be related to the shortest temporal pulse that can be created so that T = //BW. That is, the temporal duration of the pulse is the inverse of the bandwidth. This treatment has considered only the simplest type of waveform that can be generated, a gated sinusoid. More sophisticated signal design and its associated processing can result in increased signal to noise ratio (SNR), but the fundamental diffraction-limited and bandwidth-limited resolution can rarely be exceeded.
Functional considerations, which tend to center on the costs and benefits to the individual, predict a wide range of "optimal" individual actions depending on what selective forces the aggregation is experiencing. Hamner and Parrish set up the dichotomy between the individual and the group within which it exists in the introductory chapter to the section on Behavioral Ecology and Evolution (Ch. 11). If congregations are structured, that does not imply stasis, either of the group as a whole, or of the individuals within it.
Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate by Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner