E.J. Milner-Gulland, John M. Fryxell, Anthony R.E. Sinclair's Animal Migrations. A synthesis PDF

By E.J. Milner-Gulland, John M. Fryxell, Anthony R.E. Sinclair

Regardless of the wealth of traditional historic learn performed on migration over many years, there's nonetheless a dearth of hypothesis-driven experiences that absolutely combine concept and empirical analyses to appreciate the motives and effects of migration, and a taxonomic bias in the direction of birds in a lot migration study. This ebook takes a comparative, built-in view of animal migration, linking evolution with ecology and administration, conception with empirical learn, and embracing all of the significant migratory taxa (including human pastoralists). The scope extends past the objective organism to contemplate the ecosystem-level dynamics of migration. The emphasis is on interesting new examine avenues which are now establishing up, no matter if because of advances in our realizing of migration as a organic phenomenon or in the course of the availability of a number new applied sciences.

Broad topics that emerge contain integrating migration into the large spectrum of flow habit, the necessity for a comparative and cross-taxonomic strategy that considers migration at various temporal and spatial scales, and exam of the major roles of source uncertainty and spatial heterogeneity in riding migratory habit. The e-book identifies the opportunity of new instruments to revolutionize the examine of migration, together with satellite-tracking know-how, genomics, and modeling - all of that are associated with expanding computing strength. we're now at the verge of a leap forward in migration study, that's an important given the a number of threats that face the conservation of migration as a phenomenon, together with weather switch.

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If habitat B is a sink (were it to be occupied on a year-round basis) then only migrants can persist in the system (Fig. 2), echoing a pattern seen in earlier models of habitat-mediated dispersal (McPeek and Holt 1992; Holt 1997). Provided that the fitness in alternating habitats is high enough, it is readily possible to construct a system in which both habitats are sinks, yet permitting persistence of migrants, although such migrants could only arrive via colonization from elsewhere. So far we have assumed that habitats alternate seasonally in terms of fitness advantage.

Perverse migrants). Only migrants by themselves, or a pair of migratory morphs (logical and perverse migrants), can persist when both habitats are sinks (as assessed by the fate of non-migratory morphs, when alone). Our general conclusion is that if a species is widely distributed, and the world fluctuates through time (an ecological truism if there ever were one), then if one does NOT observe migration, it must be because migration itself is costly. Such costs are not explicitly built into the logic of fitness in the seasonal environments that we have presented above.

Real migrants must use constrained movement modes to traverse rugged landscapes, with dynamic interplay between navigational capacity, social pressures, and complex motivational goals (Mueller et al. 2008; Nathan et al. 2008; Schick et al. 2008). This in turn makes it likely that some habitats could remain part of a migratory repertoire even if, in terms of the strict calculus of natural selection, such habitats should be ignored. Our models also, and crucially, do not explicitly include ecological interactions other than direct density-dependent competition between behavioural morphs.

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Animal Migrations. A synthesis by E.J. Milner-Gulland, John M. Fryxell, Anthony R.E. Sinclair

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